Simple steps can be taken to reduce smoke from your chimney. Learning to burn better, protects people, while also saving time and money. Increased efficiency means less wood is require to heat your home.
1. Check the chimney
Grey or smelly smoke drifting from your chimney indicates incomplete combustion due to wet wood, not enough air, or a stove that’s been overstuffed. Smoke is wasted heat!
- Ensure your fire is getting enough air – check that the air inlet is open wide enough to keep the fire burning hot.
- Open the air inlet fully whenever starting a fire or adding more wood.
- Don’t overload the firebox with too much wood. Instead, refuel more often with batches of 3 or more pieces at a time for optimal burning.
- Chimney smoke should be almost invisible after the initial starting stage of the fire – especially when you are operating a newer technology stove.
2. What to burn
Stoves that are operated with properly dried firewood can increase the heat you get by up to 15%. Upgrading your old appliance to a new efficient one can save you 1/3 of the firewood you used to burn.
- Burn only clean, dry wood that’s been dried for at least 6 months and has a moisture content under 20%, preferably 10-15%.
- Burn wood that is split into pieces 10-15 cm in diameter. Pieces should be about 6 cm shorter than the firebox size.
- Never burn wet or green wood, household garbage such as plastic or cardboard, painted or treated wood, particleboard or plywood, driftwood, or glossy magazines.
- What goes up, must come down: Burning garbage produces noxious (toxic) fumes and could damage your stove, while pollutants from the smoke that aren’t breathed in will land and contaminate the soils and waters near your home
Spring is the time gather firewood = Dry wood when winter arrives!
3. Gathering and drying your own firewood
Firewood needs to be dried from its freshly cut moisture level to below 20%, preferably 10-15%. Gather firewood in early spring and dry it through the summer.
- Softwood that is split and stacked in a dry place takes 4-6 summer months to dry
- Hardwoods can take 6-12 months or longer to dry sufficiently
- Stack the wood on lumber rails or pallets to get it up off the moist ground.
- Cover the top of the pile with tarps, metal or wood sheathing, to keep the rain off, but leave the sides of the stack open so the wood dries.
- Wood dries through its exposed grain surfaces, so even trees that have been laying dead must be cut to length and split to dry fully in the middle.
- Dry firewood often has checks (cracks) in the end grain, is much lighter in weight, and burns easily without smoldering. Use a moisture meter to check a piece of split wood before burning.
- Always store firewood outside of your home and transfer it inside in small batches; indoor storage can bring moulds and insects into your home.
- Don’t store firewood against your house as it can attract pests and can be a fire hazard for your home.
4. Steps to starting a clean, hot fire
Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding lighting techniques for your wood burning appliance. Here are some generally helpful tips:
- Place 5-10 sheets of individually crumpled newspaper sheets in the stove so that they cover the bottom of the firebox.
- Place 7-10 pieces of finely split (~1 inch diameter) dry kindling on top of the newspaper, arranging them in a way so that air can flow between the pieces.
- Open the air supply vent all the way.
- Open the front doors on the stove to get as much airflow as possible through the fire and up the chimney for the first several minutes. Don’t leave the fire unattended while the stove door is open.
- Open a nearby window or door if possible for the first minute, to get a good draft going up the chimney.
- Light the paper in a few places. When all of the kindling has caught fire, add a few smaller pieces of firewood (2-3 inch diameter) and close the stove doors.
- Gradually increase the size of the pieces as the coals build up.
- As the wood becomes well charred and coals build up, you can start to decrease the air supply to the fire. Watch for signs of incomplete burning such as visible chimney smoke or long, lazy flames in the firebox.
- When re-stoking the fire, add at least 3 pieces of firewood at a time for optimal burning.
Burn better by upgrading to an EPA certified wood stove. Your neighbours will thank you!
5. Maintaining your appliance and chimney
Operating your stove properly with dry wood will minimize the amount of creosote build up in your chimney, but some creosote is still deposited during the startup phase of the fire.
- Creosote deposits on your chimney wall provide a highly combustible fuel for chimney fires if allowed to build up.
- Have your chimney inspected and cleaned at least once per year. Look for a chimney sweep or wood heating retailer certified by the Wood Energy Technical Training (WETT) program.
6. When to burn
Please consider the health of your family and your neighbours when deciding whether or not to light your wood stove.
- Don’t operate your wood burning appliance during an Air Quality Advisory, where possible.
- For current info on air quality, check the provincial site.
- Ensure the venting index is good by checking venting conditions This is especially important to check before doing any big backyard or slash pile burns!